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For the pop group, see Edison Lighthouse.

Eddystone Lighthouse
An aerial view of the fourth lighthouse. (The stub of the third lighthouse is visible in the background.)
Cornwall
Locationoffshore Rame Head
Plymouth
England
Coordinates50°10′48″N 04°15′54″W / 50.18000°N 4.26500°W / 50.18000; -4.2650050°10′48″N 04°15′54″W / 50.18000°N 4.26500°W / 50.18000; -4.26500Coordinates: 50°10′48″N 04°15′54″WCool Wood Dog Projects DIYhow to Cool Wood Dog Projects DIY for  / 50.18000°N 4.26500°W / 50.18000; -4.26500
Year first constructed1698 (first)
1709 (second)
1759 (third)
Year first lit1882 (current)
Automated1982
Deactivated1703 (first)
1755 (second)
1877 (third)
Constructionwooden tower (first and second)
granite tower (third and current)
Tower shapeoctagonal tower (first)
dodecagonal tower (second)
tapered cylindrical tower (third)
tapered cylindrical tower with lantern and helipad on the top (current)
Tower height18 metres (59 ft) (first)
21 metres (69 ft) (second)
22 metres (72 ft) (third)
49 metres (161 ft) (current)
Focal height41 metres (135 ft)
Current lens4th order 250 mm rotating
Light sourcesolar power
Intensity26,200 candela
Range17 nautical miles (31 km)
CharacteristicFl (2) W 10s.
Iso R 10s. at 28 metres (92 ft) focal height
Fog signalone blast every 30s.
Racon
Admiralty numberA0098
NGA number0132
ARLHS numberENG 039
Managing agentTrinity House [1] [2]

Cool Wood Dog Projects DIYhow to Cool Wood Dog Projects DIY for The Eddystone Lighthouse is a lighthouse that is located on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, 9 statute miles (14 km) south of Rame for 1 last update 2020/07/15 Head in England. While Rame Head is in Cornwall, the rocks are submerged below the surface of the sea [3] and composed of Precambrian gneiss.[4] The Eddystone Lighthouse is a lighthouse that is located on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, 9 statute miles (14 km) south of Rame Head in England. While Rame Head is in Cornwall, the rocks are submerged below the surface of the sea [3] and composed of Precambrian gneiss.[4]

The current structure is the fourth to be built on the site. The first and second were destroyed by storm and fire respectively. The third, also known as Smeaton''s first open ocean lighthouse although the Cordouan lighthouse preceded it as the first offshore lighthouse.[6]

Contents

Cool Wood Dog Projects DIYhow to Cool Wood Dog Projects DIY for The need for a light[edit][edit]

The Eddystone Rocks are an extensive reef approximately 12 miles (19 km) SSW off Plymouth Sound, one of the most important naval harbours of England, and midway between Lizard Point, Cornwall and Start Point. They are submerged at high spring tides and were so feared by mariners entering the English Channel that they often hugged the coast of France to avoid the danger, which thus resulted not only in shipwrecks locally, but on the rocks of the north coast of France and the Channel Islands.[7] Given the difficulty of gaining a foothold on the rocks particularly in the predominant swell it was a long time before anyone attempted to place any warning on them.

Winstanley''s lighthouse, as modified in 1699

The first lighthouse on Eddystone Rocks was an octagonal wooden structure built by Henry Winstanley. The lighthouse was also the first recorded instance of an offshore lighthouse.[6] Construction started in 1696 and the light was lit on 14 November 1698. During construction, a French privateer took Winstanley prisoner and destroyed the work done so far on the foundations, causing Louis XIV to order Winstanley''lantern''60 candles at a time, besides a great hanging lamp''s tower lasted until the Great Storm of 1703 erased almost all trace on 27 November. Winstanley was on the lighthouse, completing additions to the structure. No trace was found of him, or of the other five men in the lighthouse.[10][11]

The cost of construction and five years''s lighthouseCool Wood Dog Projects DIYhow to Cool Wood Dog Projects DIY for [editCool Wood Dog Projects DIYhow to Cool Wood Dog Projects DIY for ]

Elevation of Rudyard''s lighthouse by Isaac Sailmaker.

Cool Wood Dog Projects DIYhow to Cool Wood Dog Projects DIY for Following the destruction of the first lighthouse, Captain John Lovett[12][note 1] acquired the lease of the rock, and by Act of Parliament was allowed to charge passing ships a toll of one penny per ton. He commissioned John Rudyard (or Rudyerd) to design the new lighthouse, built as a conical wooden structure around a core of brick and concrete. The vertical wooden planks which sheathed the structure were installed by two master-shipwrights and caulked like those of a ship;[9] and the whole structure was anchored to the reef using thirty-six wrought iron bolts forged to fit deep holes which had been machine-cut in the reef.[13] A light was first shone from the tower on 28 July 1708[14] and the work was completed in 1709. The light was provided by 24 candles.[9] This proved more durable, surviving nearly fifty years.[5]

Outline of slab of lead removed from lung, having fallen from the roof of Eddystone Light during a fire.

On the night of 2 December 1755, the top of the lantern caught fire, probably through a spark from one of the candles used to illuminate the light, or else through a fracture in the chimney which passed through the lantern from the stove in the kitchen below.[9] The three keepers threw water upwards from a bucket but were driven onto the rock and were rescued by boat as the tower burnt down. Keeper Henry Hall, who was 94 at the time, died several days later from ingesting molten lead from the lantern roof.[5] A report on this case was submitted to the Royal Society by physician Edward Spry,[15] and the piece of lead is now in the collections of the National Museums of Scotland.[16][17]

Smeaton''s Tower

Smeaton''hydraulic lime''s lighthouse was 59 feet (18 m) high and had a diameter at the base of 26 feet (8 m) and at the top of 17 feet (5 m). It was lit by a chandelier of 24 large tallow candles.[19]

Early 19th-century painting of the lighthouse by John Lynn, showing the reflectors in place in the lantern.

In 1807 the 100-year lease on the lighthouse expired, whereupon ownership and management devolved to Trinity House. In 1810 they replaced the chandelier and candles with 24 Argand lamps and parabolic reflectors.[19]

In 1841 major renovations were made,[20] under the direction of engineer Henry Norris of Messrs. Walker & Burges, including complete repointing, replacement water tanks and filling of a large cavity in the rock close to the foundations. In 1845 the lighthouse was equipped with a new second-order fixed catadioptric optic,[21] manufactured by Henry Lepaute of Paris, with a single multi-wick oil lamp, replacing the old lamps and reflectors.[22] This was the first time that a fully catadioptric large optic (using prisms rather than mirrors above and below the lens) had been constructed,[23] and the first such installation in any lighthouse.[24]

Smeaton''s Tower.

The re-erected tower on the Hoe is now a tourist attraction. The foundations and stub of the tower remain, close to the new and more solid foundations of the current lighthouse[5] – the foundations proved too strong to be dismantled so the Victorians left them where they stood.

An 1850 replica of Smeaton''s lighthouse[edit]

Original drawing of 4th Eddystone Lighthouse

The current, fourth, lighthouse was designed by James Douglass, using Robert Stevenson''s techniques. By July 1878 the new site, on the South Rock was being prepared during the 3½ hours between ebb and flood tide; the foundation stone was laid on 19 August the following year by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, Master of Trinity House.[26] The supply ship Hercules was based at Oreston, now a suburb of Plymouth; stone was prepared at the Oreston yard and supplied from the works of Messrs Shearer, Smith and Co of Wadebridge.[27][28] The tower, which is 49 metres (161 ft) high, contains a total of 62,133 cubic for 1 last update 2020/07/15 feet of granite, weighing 4,668 tons.[26] The last stone was laid on 1 June 1881 and the light was first lit on 18 May 1882. The lighthouse is still in use. The current, fourth, lighthouse was designed by James Douglass, using Robert Stevenson''s techniques. By July 1878 the new site, on the South Rock was being prepared during the 3½ hours between ebb and flood tide; the foundation stone was laid on 19 August the following year by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, Master of Trinity House.[26] The supply ship Hercules was based at Oreston, now a suburb of Plymouth; stone was prepared at the Oreston yard and supplied from the works of Messrs Shearer, Smith and Co of Wadebridge.[27][28] The tower, which is 49 metres (161 ft) high, contains a total of 62,133 cubic feet of granite, weighing 4,668 tons.[26] The last stone was laid on 1 June 1881 and the light was first lit on 18 May 1882. The lighthouse is still in use.

The current lighthouse and the stub of Smeaton''s characteristic of two flashes every thirty seconds.[30] In total, the apparatus stood over 10 feet (3.0 m) tall and weighed over seven tons.[31] At the time the Eddystone''s rotation.[26] Illumination was provided by a pair of Douglass-designed six-wick concentric oil burners;[34] eighteen cisterns in the lower part of the tower were used to store up to 2,660 tons (nine months''bi-valve''supertyfon''Rock''s Drake 400 Suite. The movement''s unique light characteristic.[43]
  • A novel based on the building of Smeaton''s epic novel Moby-Dick; at the beginning of Chapter 14, "": "", and in Chapter 133, "": ""
  • The lighthouse is referred to in "" by the Canadian band Stringband, and follows a similar line to the sea shanty.
  • "" the third chapter of The Story of Lighthouses (Norton 1965) by Mary Ellen Chase, is devoted to the Eddystone Lighthouse.
  • Eddystone Lighthouse was used for many of the exterior shots in The Phantom Light, a 1935 film directed by Michael Powell.[45]
  • for 1 last update 2020/07/15 TributeTribute[edit]

    On November 14, 2019, Google celebrated the 321st anniversary of the First Lighting of Eddystone Lighthouse with a Google Doodle.[46]

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